Buildings have a high share in generating the Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Globally, more than 40% of all GHG emissions are created by buildings which is the main culprit in creating global warming. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) defined Green building as the practice of creating structures and applying processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efﬁcient throughout a building’s life-cycle from siting, designing, and construction to operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction.
Green building is also known as a sustainable or high-performance building. Green construction includes all stages of developing a building process from beginning to exploitation and afterwards such as design, construction, operation, maintenance, and management in a way that have the least negative impact on the environment.
Green buildings contribute to the high comfort and satisfaction, result to occupants' productivity and physical health and well-being, enhance pro-environmental behavior through motivating occupants, increase human health, work productivity, and enhance residents' tolerance and forgiveness against the unfavorable internal environment. Higher satisfaction and performance of green buildings are related to Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) factors such as thermal environment, indoor air quality, visual and audio environment compared to conventional buildings. IEQ is an important subject which has a great effect on occupant's health, productivity, satisfaction, and also energy consumption in buildings. Thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual comfort, and aural comfort are four major parameters for evaluation of IEQ.
The green building elements include:
1- sustainable site development (i.e., the location of the building on the property and vicinity to the green space)
2- sustainable and proper building design
3- integrated building systems design
4- proper insulation
5- green building facilities
6- sustainable construction methods, materials, and quality standards
7- new and useful technologies
8- water conservation
9- alternative energy resources
10- optimized maintenance
11- sustainable operation
12- efficient management
Yeo (2004) presented sustainability requires innovations. Yu Li (2017) figured out higher level of innovation brings firms higher level of internationalization.
There are new Green Building Technologies (GBTs) and advanced progress in materials and facilities related to green building such as using new and recycled material, Building Management System (BMS), Building Automation System (BAS), sun pipes, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system, efficient Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system, new solar heating and solar hot water devices, real-time monitoring systems, green roof, wall technology, etc.